All you need to know about Form 16



Form 16 is provided by the employer to the employee. It contains the details of the amount of tax deducted at source (TDS) from an employee’s salary. Employees need Form 16 while filing their income tax returns (ITR) with the IT department. Employers are required to provide Form 16 at the end of every financial year to taxpaying employees under Section 203 of the IT act.

Form 16 contains all the details about the basic pay, the tax deducted by the employer and its submission date to the IT department. Please keep in mind that if you have switched jobs with tax deducted at all the workplaces, you should get a different Form 16 for each.

What Constitutes Form 16

The various elements that you will find in form 16 are:

  • Refunds or balance about taxes payable

  •  Employer’s TAN and PAN details

  •  Tax payment details

  •  Employee’s personal details

  •  Tax deduction details as per section 191A

  •  Details about salary

  •  TDS receipt

 Form 16 Part A

The employer issues Form 16 Part A containing:

  • Name and address of the taxpayer
  • PAN and TAN of the employer
  • PAN and Reference Number of taxpayer
  • Financial year and period of employment
  • Total TDS deducted and deposited for the year

Form 16 Part B

This form contains detailed break-up of the tax amount as per the investment declarations made by you at the start of the financial year and document proofs submitted during ITR filing. The various components of Form 16 B are:

  • Basic salary details

  • Details about allowances

  • Information about tax deduction

  • Other income declared by employees and deductions against such income.

  • Employee’s net tax liability

  • Employer verification


 Difference between Form 16 A and Form 16 B

Form 16 A is the TDS certificate issued for income other than salary, constituting accruals from returns against fixed deposit investment, mutual funds, gold bonds, and other forms of capital gain. Form 16 B, on the other hand, certifies tax that has been deducted from income accruing from the sale of immovable property (building or a part of it and land).

Who is eligible for Form 16?

The Ministry of Finance guidelines stipulate that any salaried individual whose tax is deducted by the employer is eligible to get Form 16. A company need not Issue Form 16 for employees whose salary is below the taxable limit. However, many companies issue the form even to employees outside of the tax bracket as it is a convenient way of providing consolidated information concerning employees’ total earnings.

Advantages of Form 16, Form 16 A, and Form 16 B

Form 16

  • Details contained in the form are required at the time of filing income tax returns.
  • It helps verify that the right amount of tax was deposited according to the information contained in the form.
  • Acts as proof where required.
  • It can be used when applying for loans as it is accepted as valid income proof in financial institutions.
  • Helps employers calculate the correct tax liability for the employee in question.
  • It is also required to obtain international visas to travel.

Form 16 A

  • The TDS and income data contained in Form 16 A assist taxpayers in filing their income tax returns and calculating the tax as applicable per their income.

Form 16 B

  • The form provides evidence that TDS has been deducted from the proceeds of a property sale by the buyer and duly deposited with the income tax department.

 How to download Form 16, Form 16 A, and Form 16B?


Form 16

Step 1- Go to

Step 2 – Log in with your credentials.

Step 3 – Scroll to the Downloads Tab and select the “Income Tax Forms” option

Step 4 – There, you will find Form 16 with two options, ‘PDF’ and ‘Fillable Form’

Step 5 – In the case of individual PANs, select the financial year for which Form 16 is needed, enter the PAN number, click on Add and hit enter to the go option,

Step 6 –  Finally, click on Submit to Download Form 16

Form 16 A

Step 1- Login to the TRACES website with a user ID (PAN) and password.

Step 2- Scroll to Downloads and click on Form 16 A.

Step 3- Enter the details and click on Go.


 Form 16 B

Step 1- Log in to

Step 2- Click on Register New User and complete the formalities.

Step 3- Once the details are validated, you can create an account with your PAN as the user ID and a password of your choice. An automatically generated email will be sent with an activation link, and the second code will be texted to your registered mobile phone. To download Form 16 B, you need to scroll to download and click on ‘Request for Form 16 B,’ validate the details and submit the request. After some time, click on download and save it to your computer.

India needs to get on top of the energy situation.

Pexels photo by Pixabay


India needs to get on top of the energy situation if we are to seriously think of becoming the third-largest economy in the world and an engine of world economic growth. That means that we have to first of all sort out our supply chain issues with regard to coal that fires our thermal plants and secondly make a concerted move to renewable and alternative sources of energy on an ASAP basis. In this regard, the prime minister’s push to make Indian an energy independent country by 2047 has not come a moment too soon.


The current oil crisis brought upon the world by the Ukraine conflict has stressed most of the economies globally, save that of the United States which is sitting pretty because it has achieved near total self-sufficiency in its energy needs and can afford to play hardball with Russia the way that it is. With climate change issues and the Paris accord obligations making thermal energy not much of a long term solution, India needs to expedite the move to renewables. At the same time, there has to be a move away from oil to natural gas as well as a focus on using petrol that has been blended with 20% of ethanol so as to progressively reduce the reliance on imported oil. The rapid adoption of electric mobility is an integral part of the move away from fossil fuel and towards an environmentally friendly long term power generation policy and has to be given the utmost priority as well.

India has the resources and the wherewithal to pull it off given that it gets so much sun to help aid solar power generation, has a vast landmass and a very long coastline to support wind-generated power, an enviable network of rivers to tap for hydel electricity and the ability to produce power with the help of thorium-based nuclear reactors. The sooner the energy situation is dealt with the sooner will India attain its position amongst the top few nations of the world.

What is green cloud computing?


Pexels photo by Luis del Rio

We live in fraught times where a degraded environment has become an existential problem for the whole world. This has prompted an across-the-board clean up in the way that mankind goes about the business of living. Everything from the way we travel and pursue our livelihoods to how we eat and entertain ourselves is seeing a paradigm redefining move towards a more ecologically sustainable way of doing things.

That includes even something like cloud computing-something one would never imagine has anything to do with the environment, but apparently, it does. The fact of the matter is that with an exponential rise in the demand for cloud architecture across enterprises, there has been a huge surge in energy consumption emanating from a large number of data centers and servers required to support this.

It is, therefore, essential that efficiency in the use of energy resources be incorporated into the cloud computing process. That is what green cloud computing is all about.  We could define it as the process by which one devises the use of digital spaces in a manner that has minimal impact on the environment.

How organizations can achieve green cloud computing

Plan for it

Green cloud computing will not occur in a vacuum. Organizations need to come up with a green computing plan. This requires them to look at elements like power management by way of using a green algorithm that significantly reduces power consumption at cloud computing data centers. Another thing that one can look at is virtualization-using multiple operating systems running simultaneously on a computer system. This use of common servers and terminals can result in a substantial reduction in energy consumption.

Among other things that an organization can do to facilitate green cloud computing is to go for a cloud service that uses an eco-friendly model for data storage and backup. An integral part of any green cloud computing initiative has to be a green data center that makes use of technologies that are energy efficient. They will make sure to work with systems that are up to date with regard to data storage and management.

That apart, an organization would do well to choose equipment that is certified for energy efficiency. All in all, it is important that any organization looking at implementing green cloud computing should ensure that they use the available resources optimally, leverage virtualization and manage power consumption optimally.

Why Green Cloud Computing

Green cloud computing provides benefits on several levels including environment, efficiency and cost-saving.  Taking the environmental factor first, using cloud computing has a huge salutary impact in the shape of a reduced carbon footprint on account of more efficient use of energy and the enabling of paperless working.  From the point of view of cost-saving, green cloud computing is driven by efficient use of resources driving down costs for consumers and improving customer service. That apart, green cloud computing brings down the cost of operations on account of lower energy bills, which benefit too can be passed on to the customer. Another benefit that accrues to consumers on account of green cloud computing is the fact that it can be used as a pay as you go service that is scalable and very market-orientated.


The need for green cloud computing is only going to grow as time progresses on account of the fact that the kind of energy needed to power data centers is increasing exponentially. Not addressing the issue will lead to a phenomenal increase in the amount of greenhouse gas emissions and the best way to do so is by implementing green cloud computing. This is something that has to be done in light of not just the Paris Climate Accord obligations, but a growing realization that things will not continue the same old way.

The growing importance and indeed the urgency surrounding the need for green cloud computing also presents a great business opportunity to many. It lets organizations easily scale up and down in accordance with the demand. This helps them reduce idle time with regard to energy consumption in a major way. The benefits of adopting green cloud computing help organizations in terms of not just money savings, but also better customer experience, retention of employees, faster development and of course, reduced greenhouse emissions-a winner all the way.

The Impact of War on Ukraine’s Technology Industry

Pexels photo by Katie Godowski


The invasion of Ukraine took the world by surprise, even though there were indications galore that Putin’s Russia would do just that. Now that the invasion has taken place and the Ukrainians are standing up to the aggressor with unprecedented bravery against impossible odds, the world is finally waking up in trying to figure out how to deal with the emerging situation. There is an overwhelming realization that a message needs to be unequivocally sent that no nation in the world can feel that it is to their advantage to invade another country with the intention of occupying it.

While the world learns to come up with the right kind of strategy to not only try and roll back the advance of the Russian armed forces into Ukraine but to ensure that it never happens again, the Ukrainians are fighting for their right to exist on the streets of its cities. The human suffering apart, one of the many casualties of any war is the livelihoods and economy of a nation. Ukraine, which had a booming technology industry has seen it come under siege with the Ukrainian government departments being subject to data wiping malware in the lead up to the actual armed attack.

But the real impact of the invasion has likely been crippling across the entire technology ecosystem of the country that encompasses a host of startups, large-sized technology firms and a large number of R&D setups representing the iconic technology brands of the world. Like India, Ukraine is a major technology outsourcing destination and this sector has been booming in the country with cities like Kyiv, Dnipro, Lviv and Kharpov leading the way in driving the growth. In fact, IT industry exports grew by as much as 20.4% in 2020 (the pandemic year) to cross a figure of $20 billion.
With internet outages becoming the norm, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the large number of companies providing technology services backup to the banking, insurance and financial services companies in the U.S. and Europe to continue doing so. One can imagine the financial distress that will be caused by the sudden folding up of a sector that employs 85000 to 100000 people. With many of the major global businesses looking at relocating their employees to relatively safer locations within Ukraine, how the situation eventually pans out depends upon how long the conflict drags on and in what manner it gets resolved.

How to Live a Sustainable-Life in Modern Times


Lead a sustainable life to save earth
Photo by Markus Spiske on Pexels

Are our lives slowly losing their sheen?

Crazy weather patterns and environmental disasters come knocking at our doors frequently these days. Leading a  sustainable-life in modern times can help us heal the earth.

Awareness and cultivating a few habits. That’s all that it takes. And you’re a contributor to sustainable living!

With that said environmental degradation is an issue sitting smack bang at the centre of our lives. It has damning consequences. Burying our heads in the sand shows ignorance.

Thankfully, it’s a doer’s world! We can turn the tide. Know the facts. That’s half the battle won! And that’s exactly what this blog post is about….


Let’s take a deep dive.

The pandemic blues…

And here we are now- dealing with this beastly pandemic. It’s held our life in an iron grip. Refusing to let go!

We’re tired. Some of us in a permanent state of funk. Days are a drag. We long for normal and carefree days. Aw, we want our lives back!

That said, this pandemic and the lockdown have shown us:

  • How fragile our so-called order is (we are in charge of this planet, no way…)


  •  How for granted we took our freedoms (a virus keeps us caged…)


  • And how little is needed for our daily lives (the basics- food, clothing and shelter)

Human beings are inherently selfish (barring some great souls…). We care about only those things we think will be of some use to us. By that logic, the earth is our home. It shall be home to our future generations as well. So, shan’t we do everything possible to protect it and conserve it?

Without further ado, let’s pull out some facts to know as to how we can live a sustainable-life in modern times.

                                            .       .       .

First and foremost:

What is Sustainable Living?

It’s a lifestyle choice in which we reduce/lessen our impact upon the earth. This is achieved by taking appropriate measures to save energy and reduce pollution.

Some of the examples of sustainable living are be: using cloth bags for shopping (such a simple one…yet very effective), choosing an alternate way of transportation, switching our food habits etc.

Why not get a better picture:

Why is Sustainable living so Important ?

“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.”

These famous words by Mahatma Gandhi ring so true for our times.

Our daily life makes us consume energy at a blind pace. Connection with nature is zilch.

And the outcome is we:

  • Rip off the earth of its natural resources


  • Fill the skies with toxic clouds


  • Create mountains and mountains of waste


  • Pollute water


  • Drive animals homeless and even endanger their existence.

Holy smoke! We’re destroying the planet?

This reminds me of a story where the person- the protagonist (Kalidas) is believed to have sawn off the branch of the tree he was sitting on.

Sadly, that’s what we are doing to our planet.

Let’s see how:

The trap of greenhouse gases…

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) provide us with the necessary warmth to keep life alive on this planet. They allow the sunlight to pass through the atmosphere. So, nah! the natural greenhouse gases are not the culprits. 

But at the same time, they don’t let the heat or the warmth go away.

Now, we constantly burn fossil fuels when we consume energy. Electricity (bulbs, appliances, a/cs, heaters etc.) to run our homes and for commuting (cars, planes etc.).

Then un-planned deforestation! And many more such activities enormously increase the amount of greenhouse gases.


Photo by Eelco Bohtlingk on Unsplash  

 This changes the equation.

And they (GHGs) become killer gases. Amplifying global warming. Resulting in catastrophes: Droughts, heat waves, hurricanes, extinction of wildlife, floods etc.

Our bulging population only adds further stress to the stretched resources.

Read this stat: According to, the worst impacts of climate change could be irreversible by 2030[1]. What’re we waiting for? Hell, to freeze over.

Living a sustainable-life in modern times is our only salvation. No rocket science. A few simple measures.

Ready to walk through a few of them!

                                                 .       .      .

How to lead a Sustainable Life?

Some set-screws we need to turn for our own good.

1. Cut on Transportation- the driver of pollution

Cars, trucks, buses etc. burn fossil fuels. These trap heat in the atmosphere.

This leads to climate change.

What’s the escape route?

Strike a BALANCE. Pivot to environment-friendly options like:

  • Use carpool whenever you can (sharing is cool)


  • Cycle for shorter distances (it’s fun)


  • Go walking (a super way of reaching very close destinations)


  • Use public transport (metros, buses are a great option)


  • Ditch planes for trains when travelling shorter distances


  • If you are a car owner ensure regular maintenance (that takes care of the carbon emission)


  • If you can’t do without a car then buy a smaller one or a second-hand one (high time to show some maturity…)


  • Switch to electric or hybrid cars if that is an option.

Go car-free ….

Now that every man and their dog own a car; consider yourself lucky if you haven’t bought one.

It spares you all the worries of maintaining a car. And bingo! your carbon footprint gets slashed.

Less carbon foot-print = Sustainability-life in modern times.

WFH is a boon. Just no pollution. It saves your buck as well.

2. Cut on Waste- The Toxic Jungle


Photo by Anita Lusina on Pexels

Our next challenge: Waste

According to the UN report- the world produces as much as 50 million tonnes of electronic and electric waste(e-waste) a year. Just 20 % of this is formally recycled[2].

The rest ends in landfills. Growth has a fillip side!

Some tips to reduce e-waste:

  • Stop dumping your fabulously working phones or laptops for some shiny newer model (remember the chase never ends…)


  • Extend the life of things around you by repairing them (our ancestors, elders did it all the time)


  • Buy less (buy those gadgets and appliances, you can’t do without, the rest lie idle in your home or pile up the landfills).

Another form of waste eating into our environment is food.

As per, about 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted every year[3]. An irony! In a world where millions of people are suffering due to hunger.

Let’s get organized and be food-wise:

  • Buy food that you intend to eat


  • While ordering it from outside, be sure about the quantity


  • And in case you’re cooking your own meals, keep the no. of people eating it in your mind.

Food looks great on your plate, not in your dumpster!

These little considerations  will certainly contribute to  a sustainable-life in modern times. And they will be easy on your pocket as well.

3. Block those energy leaks at Home

Just look around your home. And reduce the consumption of energy:

  • Unplug your appliances and laptops when not in use (do it right away!)


  • Using energy-efficient bulbs like LED (switch now!)


  • Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth or washing your face (reduces carbon footprint and BTW resources are not limitless)


  • Stop the usage of plastic bottles (they release toxic chemicals, instead stainless steel is a great option!)


  • Cut on the usage of air conditioning or the heaters (make yourself a little tougher J)


  • Order less to avoid packaging of the stuff. Go out and shop locally (remember to carry your eco-friendly shopping bags)


  • Buy things sensibly (stop getting gaslighted by marketing gimmicks)


  • Eat less meat and switch to plant food (meat produces greenhouse gases).

You can add more to the list. Just don’t forget to share them.

4. Be a responsible tourist

The tourism industry has been in the doghouse since the pandemic. Hopefully, the rough period won’t last. The pent-up demand must be on the cards.

That said, the international tourist arrivals are expected to reach 1.8 billion by 2030[4]. Expected to boom. Yeah! we love to travel, explore hidden gems and bump into new people.

Perhaps this could come with a caveat:

  • No littering please (collect your trash)


  • Do not throw waste in sea or sea-beds (it kills aquatic animals)


  • Do not use plastic (it piles the landfills, chokes our water bodies and takes ears and years to decompose)


  • Choose a smaller accommodation (it saves energy)

 Go camping…

Gotten used to staying in hotels! Give it a break. Camping is a super-duper way to enjoy your vacation. One: you’re closer to nature. Second: it adds an air of freedom to your holidays. Besides, it’s sustainably wise in modern times.

Just don’t forget to carry your reusable bottles and reusable bins. Leave no trail of muck.

5.  Minimalism- the way to be

Photo by on Pexels 

Happiness is a state of mind.

Who believes it?

Boatloads of money, more stuff, bigger cars, more houses…yes, we get suckered into this dream of happiness. In this mad scramble of overconsumption and vanity, we oft lose time, lose the meaning of life and happiness eludes us.

Amidst this noise, there is a small section of people (but growing in numbers…) who think and live differently. Meet the minimalists.

They refuse to get handcuffed to the pre-conceived notions of success and happiness. Some Millennials are Gen Z are nailing the minimalist idea.

  • They keep stuff which they actually require (tossing out the clutter….)


  • They don’t indulge in overconsumption (outgrown materialism)


  • They invest in emotions which help them evolve (gratitude, compassion…)


This freedom and fewer things to bother about…. they feel freer and lighter. Exploring life.

  • Aware of the fact that time is a precious resource…. They focus on their passions zealously (without getting obsessed with mindless growth…)

Happiness and contentment are the consequences of their actions. Their carbon footprint is tiny. They are a classic example of  sustainable-life in modern times.                                                                                       

                                               .      .      .


Scratching the itch but ignoring the rash. Doesn’t washFresh air and freshwater are fast becoming a luxury.

Living a sustainable-life in modern times shows our love for the earth. Tweak your lives in whatever way you can. It’s not big of an ask.

Just a quick recap:

1.  Bye-bye to Use and Throw Culture

Reuse, rehash, rent and repair- are the golden mantras. Live by them.

2.  Holler, Message and Connect- to build a Network

Foster online communities. Talk is cheap. If we can talk the talk, then we can walk the walk.

3.  Ignore people who are tone-deaf

People will be shackled to their views. Disconnect with reality makes you a Luddite.

4. Keep an eye on Cleaner Energy

Yeah! That’s the future. We’ll have to leave fossil fuels at some point. The churn has begun. Renewable energy is making waves.

Every drop and every bit counts. If these thoughts resonate with you, then we’re on the cusp of a beautiful change.

Healthy future = Sustainable-life. Become woke and stay safe.







What is a Full Stack Developer?


What is Full Stack Development

Full-stack development is all about the front end, also known as the client-side as well as the back end, otherwise known as the server-side of a web application. It encompasses designing the whole gamut of a web application as well as the website itself.

The work involved in full-stack development covers the nitty-gritty of the front end, back end and database development as well as the debugging of web applications as well as websites.


Photo: Casper Camille Rubin/Unsplash


Full-stack development requires the full mastery of not only HTML and CSS,[1] but also the ability to leverage jQuery, JavaScript, Vue or Angular to program a browser and use Python, PHP, ASP and Node to program a server. That apart, it requires the ability to program a database as well, leveraging MongoDB, SQL or SQLite.


Client Software Comprising the Front end
Server Software Comprising the Back end
Bootstrap ASP
JavaScript C#
W3.CSS Python
HTML Dom Java
JSON Node.js
XML Ruby
Angular Express.js
JQuery GO
React SQL
Redux REST
Ember.js MongoDB
Storybook Less
Grunt Saas
Gulp PaaS (Azure and Heroku)

Why Go For Full Stack Development

There are some inherent advantages in going in for full-stack development. Let’s look at what these might be-

  1. A one-stop-shop solution for all of one’s development requirements.
  2.  Exposure to the entire slew of development techniques.
  3.  Rapid development of prototypes.
  4.  The ability to cater to the requirements of the entire team.
  5.  Economical cost of project.
  6.  Faster communication within the team.
  7.  Flexibility in switching from front end to back end based upon the current requirement.
  8.  A better handle on emerging technologies.

Full-stack developers are adept at taking on projects that require them to delve into databases, create user-facing websites and work in conjunction with clients with regard to the planning of projects.

Most clients these days prefer developers who are very well versed in the intricacies pertaining to all the parts of a site, enabling them to deploy just the right tool for the job, notwithstanding whether these can be considered front end or back end

Skills Required to Become a Full Stack Developer

There is a definite set of skills required to become a full-stack developer. Let’s get to know what these are[2]:

 1. Front End Technology Skills

For one to be considered a bona fide full stack developer, it is critically important to be skilled and experienced in essential front-end technologies like CSS3, JavaScript and HTML5, as well as deep knowledge of third-party libraries like Angular, LESS,  jQuery and React.js.

 2. Knowledge of Development Languages

A full-stack developer needs to be skilled in a server-side programming language like Python, Java, .Net, Ruby, etc.

3. Knowledge of Database Management Software and Caching Technologies

A full-stack developer needs to be aware of the different types of DBMS technologies. These include MongoDB, MySQL, Oracle and SQL Server. They also need to know about caching mechanisms like Memcached, Redis and Varnish.

4. Server Knowledge 

A full-stack developer needs to be skilled in the use of Apache or nginx servers. Exposure to Linux is of great help in being able to administer servers.

5. Stellar Basic Designing Ability

Any successful full-stack developer necessarily has to have a great designing ability. Besides, they should be well versed in the basic prototype, as well as UI and UX design.


6. Knowledge of VCX or Version Control Systems


Full-stack developers would do well to get a handle on Version Control Systems, so as to be able to be in the know of any changes made in the codebase.

The distributed version control system Git, for example, empowers them to gain an understanding of the latest codes, as well as the ability to update parts of the code. It also enables them to change other developers’ code in an unobtrusive manner.

7. Ability to Work with API

Knowledge about application programming interface or API is a must for full-stack developers. Good examples of this are the ability to create and consume REST and SOAP services.

Apart from the above, a full stack developer would be well served, if they could possess the ability to write quality unit tests.

And have a firm grasp of the automated process behind the building and testing of a document, as well as implementing it at scale.

Besides, an appreciation of security concerns for each of the layers with regard to their specific vulnerabilities is very important.

Finally, it is also important for full-stack developers to be knowledgeable about algorithms and data structures.

Full Stack Developer Responsibilities

A full-stack developer has a slew of responsibilities on his or her shoulder. These include designing user interactions for websites as well as developing servers and databases that promote website functionality and coding.

They are also expected to code for mobile platforms.

Let’s take a detailed look at what all their job responsibilities entail.

  • Front End Website Architecture Development-

Front end applications need to have a dependable architecture that is easy to maintain and is easy to scale up and down. An ideal way of doing that would be to create a modular and domain-driven one.

  • Web Page User Interaction Designing

User interaction design is more than just the interaction between the user and the application or design. It may very well be about multiple users connecting through that device. It is all about how a product works than the way that it appears.

  • Back End Website Application Development

This is literally the skill that is behind the power of the web. Yet, back-end development happens unobtrusively enabling users to go about the business of browsing myriad sites unmindful of the skills and effort required to make that possible.

  • Server and Database Creation From the Functionality Viewpoint

Full-stack developers should be able to plan the structure as well as create a new project in this regard. They should possess the ability to prepare the web interface, as well as the communication between the application and the database.

They should be able to run the completed application, as well as manage the troubleshooting.[3] 

  • Cross-Platform Optimization for Mobiles

In the mobile-first era, it is a no-brainer that cross-platform optimization for mobiles is a skill that a full stack developer most certainly has to possess.

One should have the ability to make a mobile-optimized site look equally great on an iPhone, Android, Symbian and Blackberry mobiles.

  • Making Applications Responsive

Full-stack developers are expected to be on the ball when it comes to ensuring that applications don’t exhibit any manner of sluggishness with regard to user responsiveness.

This should be regardless of whether resources or service available to the users is at par or below it.

  • Working in Tandem With Graphic Designers

A full-stack developer would do well to work in tandem with a graphic designer in order to create a site that is brilliant both in terms of its functionality and aesthetics.

  • A to Z Project Implementation

A full-stack developer is expected to be involved in a project right from the stage of initiation to its completion.  Needless to say, this requires excellent organizational skills, as well as an eye for the last detail.

  • Designing and Development of APIs

An  API is a critically important piece of technology, on account of it being a platform that empowers diverse software or applications to communicate with one another. It is critical that a full-stack developer be able to design and develop them very well.

  • Catering to Technical and Consumer Needs

These are really the fundamental responsibilities of a full-stack developer. They are absolutely expected to cater to both the technical and consumer needs with equal facility. That is the reason, why they are so highly prized.

  • Keeping Oneself Updated About Developments in Web Application and Programming Languages

Considering the high rate of obsolescence in the technology sector, a full-stack developer has to stay in the know about the latest developments in the realm of webs applications and programming.

This will ensure that the sites they develop are both contemporary and optimized to deliver.

Most Popular Tech Stacks Full Stack Developers Can Choose From

Let us first understand what stack really stands for.

It is a term used to describe a set of programming languages or software products.[4] Full-stack developers these days are expected to be past masters at managing all manner of issues across myriad streams of software development.

That is the reason why there is such a large demand for full-stack developers possessing the wherewithal capable of web and app designing from the start to the finish, without disrupting any process.

The reason that full-stack developers are the flavour of the times is the fact that they are able to perform a large number of important development functions that they can efficiently perform.

Let’s examine the most sought after stacks that are popular with full-stack developers.

1. MEAN Stack

This comprises MongoDB, Express.js, Angular and Node.js. It is the preferred stack among full stack developers engaged in mobile and responsive web apps.

MongoDB is deployed by the back end for storing data in the shape of JavaScript Object Notation documents.  Express JS on the other hand is the back end web application mounted on Node.js.

Angular enables the front-end web app framework that runs the JavaScript code in the user’s browser empowering an application UI to assume a dynamic form.

Node.js enables a JavaScript runtime environment that allows one to implement an application back end in JavaScript.

This stack is popular not only because it melds four great enabling technologies, but also because it covers the entire gamut of the full web development cycle.

It ranges from the client-side front end development to the server-side back end with the help of JavaScript.

2. MERN Stack

Another very popular stack with full-stack developers, this one consists of MongoDB, Express, React, and Node.js open source components.

These together provide the entire framework of support required by developers to carry out their functions. Quite similar to the MEAN stack, its noticeable difference is that it uses Angular to create front-end web applications, whereas this one uses React.

Like the MEAN stack, the MERN stack too encompasses the full range of the web development cycle including client-side front-end development and the server-side back-end development using JavaScript.

3. MEVIN Stack

This is another version of MEAN, where Angular is replaced with Vue.js as the front-end framework.

The advantage that accrues from using Vue.js is the fact that it combines the best features of React and Angular. Not only is it easy to master, but it also performs exceedingly well, has a clean programming style and a handful of great tools.


Again, quite a popular stack with full-stack developers on account of its stellar performance, malleability and open-source origins. It is the stack of choice for many on account of its ability to enhance efficiency and reduce costs.[5]

Structurally it is comprised of Linux as the basic layer of the stack and Apache an open-source and free HTTP server that enables the movement of content between the server and the users’ browsers.

Other components include MySQL a relational database management system and the programming languages like PHP, Pearl or Python.

Going beyond these open-source systems one can use different combinations and variations of the same stack which can run seamlessly on any operating system.

When to Hire a Full Stack Developer?

In today’s fraught times most businesses run lean operations. They seek to test and validate ideas by creating a bare-bones but viable product, a full stack developer is definitely the one to turn to.

They possess both the ability and the wherewithal to turn an idea or a feature into a viable and functional prototype.

We are in the middle of a technological revolution that has made the world of business a hyper-efficient and extremely competitive place.

Over here the best value at the best prices is the name of the game.

In a scenario like this, you could say that full-stack developers are a prized community who are valued for the skills they bring to the table.

The Bottom Line

The role of a developer is key in the world of technology and this is truer today than ever before. A developer needs to update his or her skills regularly to be able to keep pace with the rapid technological changes that have become the norm in today’s times.

That is the precise reason why a full-stack developer is so important.

With their ability to leverage their knowledge of both the front end and the back end they are able to deal with the technical issues pertaining to both the client as well as the server software in use.

They possess the wherewithal to work in a seamlessly coordinated matter with other stakeholders and obtain optimal results.

In the old paradigm development work used to be divided amongst specialist front end and back end developers, testers, database engineers and so on who constituted the various parts of the software development life cycle.[6]

But with the emergence of multiple frameworks, tools as well as libraries it has become possible for software developers to carry out turnkey application development encompassing building, testing and deploying applications.

The number of organizations seeking the services of full stack developers to help them in the implementation of agile projects by leveraging their skill-sets has grown manifold.

Full-stack developers are valued for their extreme flexibility of skills, with regard to both front-end and back-end technologies.

That apart, the fact that they possess a vast amount of know-how and deep experience in an array of technologies makes them the right candidates for entrusting the ownership of a project and expecting total accountability for every aspect of the project.

A full-stack developer goes beyond the development of the code and actually goes ahead and provides it with a structure, besides coming up with the user interface designs. Not just that, they actually go ahead and optimize as well as maintain the existing systems.

Add to that their immense problem-solving abilities, on account of their deep knowledge about every development stage and a firm handle on technology to efficiently zero in on any issues and providing and deploying optimal long-term solutions.

With their extensive bouquet of skills cutting across domains, they are able to both hasten and improve project delivery.

Any organization would be happy to hire full-stack developers for their innate ability to resolve problems pertaining to various aspects of web and app development. Full-stack developers are hot property all right and they are likely to stay that way in the time ahead.